A protein made by the liver that keeps fluid from leaking out of blood vessels, nourishes tissues, and transports hormones, vitamins, drugs, and substances like calcium throughout the body
A condition in which there is a deficiency of red cells or of haemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness. It happens when the number of healthy red blood cells in the body is too low.
A hormone that causes constriction of blood vessels and a subsequent increase in blood pressure. It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that raises blood pressure.Read more.
Aplastic Anemia
Aplastic Anemia is a condition that occurs when the body stops producing enough new blood cells. Aplastic Anemia leaves you feeling fatigued and with a higher risk of infections and uncontrolled bleeding.


Blood Transfusion
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions are used for various medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (Bun)
Blood Urea nitrogen comes from the breakdown of protein in the foods you eat. A normal BUN level is between 7 and 20. As kidney function decreases, the BUN level rises.
an examination of tissue removed from a living body to discover the presence, cause, or extent of a disease.
Bone marrow
Bone marrow is the flexible tissue in the interior of bones. In humans, red blood cells are produced by cores of bone marrow in the heads of long bones in a process known as hematopoiesis.


Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
it is a type of peritoneal Dialysis wherein the abdomen is filled with dialysate for a prescribed dwell time, then the fluid is drained. Gravity moves the fluid through the catheter and into and out of the abdomen.
Continuous Cycler-Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD)
Also known as automated peritoneal Dialysis (APD), this method of Peritoneal Dialysis uses a machine (automated cycler) that performs multiple exchanges at night while you sleep. The cycler automatically fills the abdomen with dialysate, allows it to dwell there and then drains it to a sterile bag that you empty in the morning.
a waste product that comes from the normal wear and tear on muscles of the body. As kidney disease progresses, the level of creatinine in the blood rises.
CT Scan
It is a special test that uses X-rays to make detailed pictures of parts of your body and the structures inside your body.


a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood and is used primarily as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with kidney failure.


Known as Red Blood Cells, Erythrocytes contain the pigment haemoglobin, which imparts the red colour to blood, and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues.
Erythropoietin is an important hormone produced by the kidney that is critical in the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow.
Erythropoietin stimulating agents
An erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (abbreviated ESA), is a medicine similar to erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoeisis).


Fistula ( Ateriovenous )
An abnormal connection between an artery and a vein.


clusters of microscopic blood vessels inside the kidneys that have small pores through which blood is filtered.
Glomerular filtration rate
Glomerular filtration is the process by which kidneys filter your blood, removing excess wastes and fluids. Your GFR tells the doctor your stage of kidney disease and helps the doctor plan your treatment. If your GFR number is low, kidneys are not working as well as they should


the presence of blood in urine
Hemodialysis is a treatment for kidney failure that uses a machine to filter your blood outside your body.
a special Filter/Machine that is used in Hemodialysis used to clean the blood . Inside the dialyzer, the blood flows through thin fibers that filter out wastes, extra salt and extra fluid.
Hemolytic Anemias
a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before their normal lifespan is over


Kidney transplant
a surgery that places a new kidney inside your body that will take over the work of failed kidneys. The new kidney may come from a living donor (usually a relative or friend) or someone who died and wanted to be an organ donor.


Substances that are used to loosen stools and increase bowel movements. They are used to treat and/or prevent constipation.


Peritoneal dialysis
Peritoneal Dialysis involves surgery to implant a catheter into your belly area. During treatment, a special fluid called dialysate flows into abdomen. Once the dialysate draws waste out of the bloodstream, it’s drained from the abdomen.
the presence of excess proteins in the urine


Sickle cell Anemia
Sickle cell Anemia is a disease in which the body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They don't last as long as normal, round red blood cells. This leads to Anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood vessels, blocking blood flow


Ultrasound imaging
Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It is used to help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s also used to help guide biopsies, diagnose heart conditions, and assess damage after a heart attack. Ultrasound is safe, non-invasive, and does not use ionizing radiation.
Urea (also known as carbamide) is a waste product of many living organisms, and is the major organic component of human urine.


Vascular access
Vascular access procedure inserts a flexible, sterile plastic tube called a catheter into a blood vessel to allow blood to be drawn from or medication to be delivered to a patient’s bloodstream over an extended period.